3+ Ways for Foreign-Born Physicians to File For a J-1 Waiver

Nearly 30% of physicians working in the United States were born abroad. In addition, many of these doctors first came to the United States on a J-1 visa.

A J-1 visa is a non-immigrant visa for research scholars, professors, and other professionals participating in cultural exchange programs. J-1 visas are commonly sponsored by the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG). They allow foreign-born physicians to complete their medical training in the United States for up to seven years.

However, for physicians who wish to remain and work in the United States, without first returning to their home country for two years, there are opportunities to obtain a J-1 waiver. 

The J-1 visa is intended for cultural exchange rather than permanent immigration. According to Travel.State.Gov, most J-1 visa holders are subject to a “two-year home country physical presence requirement.” By applying successfully for the J-1 waiver program, you can stay stateside. But as you may imagine, doing so can be tricky.

Why? Because a federal requirement stipulates that J-1 visa holders return to their home country for a minimum of two years after completing their training. They are supposed to do this before applying for another visa in the United States, such as a work visa.

However, a J-1 waiver allows physicians to bypass the two-year home country requirement under certain conditions. If they agree to work in areas with underserved patient populations for a minimum of three years, they are able to. While this may sound straightforward, there are very specific practice requirements, application timelines, and sponsorship processes required to obtain a J-1 waiver.

Moreover, a physician’s options for a obtaining J-1 waiver will depend on many factors. Their specialty, practice preference, geography, and personal circumstances.

Let’s explore the most common ways for physicians to acquire a J-1 waiver:

Conrad State 30 Waivers

The Conrad 30 State Program is one of the most desirable ways for a physician to obtain a J-1 waiver. Notably because this sponsorship route is available to all specialties.

The Conrad State 30 is a program sponsored by the public health department of each state. It’s goal is to attract qualified physicians to work in underserved populations. Every year, each state offers 30 waiver slots to physicians who have secured contracts at an underserved practice in the state.

Conrad 30 applications open on October 1st and close on March 31st.

Applications are considered in the order in which they are received. While physicians of every specialty can apply to the Conrad 30 program, most states reserve a certain number of slots. These slots are for physicians working in primary care practices, such as family medicine, internal medicine, and pediatrics.

The state will allot the remaining openings to other specialties, if the primary care spots are not all filled near the end of the application window. Some applications may be approved by state boards early. However, many physicians must wait for a decision on their application until after the window closes on March 31st.

The degree of competition for Conrad 30 openings varies greatly from state to state.

Popular States

In the sought-after states such as New York and California, the available spots may fill up within thirty minutes of when the application portal opens. Less populous states, such as Montana or North Dakota, may still have Conrad 30 spots available as late as February or March.

If you plan to pursue a J-1 waiver through Conrad 30 it is important to start looking and interviewing for jobs as early as possible. Before you can apply for a waiver through Conrad 30, you must first have a signed contract with a qualifying employer. Additionally, the employer must submit paperwork verifying that your position meets the requirements for a J-1 waiver. This can often take 2-4 weeks.

J-1 exchange visitors may only apply to the Conrad 30 program for one state at a time.

However, if you apply to one state and your application is rejected, you are then free to apply to a different state’s Conrad 30 program.

Related: 3 Common Contract Issues that Green-Card Seeking Physicians Face

Health and Human Services Waivers

J-1 visa holders can also obtain a J-1 waiver at the request of an interested U.S. federal agency. For physicians, this interested agency is usually the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

While the HHS offers more J-1 waivers than the Conrad-30, it is also more restrictive in several respects. First, only primary care specialists are eligible to file for a J-1 waiver through HHS.

Furthermore, while the Conrad 30 may approve physicians working in any underserved practice, waivers through HHS have specific requirements. These physicians must specifically work in a federally qualified health center (FQHC) or a rural health center (RHC).

If you plan to apply for a waiver through HHS, you must file your application within one year of completion of your residency. For physicians who plan to work immediately after finishing their residency, this requirement is typically not a problem.

However, if you plan to complete a fellowship program after your residency, you may not graduate from your fellowship in time to begin your attending position and apply for a J-1 waiver.

Persecution & Hardship Waivers

The remaining pathways to acquire a J-1 waiver are far more difficult and less common.

A foreign physician must demonstrate that returning to their country for a waiver of the two years would result in the following, in order to obtain a persecution or hardship-based waiver. Serious risk or hardship to either to them or to a U.S citizen/resident family member.

First, a physician may apply for a J-1 waiver on the grounds that they will face persecution upon return to their home country. Persecution based on their race, religion, or political opinion. Alternatively, a physician can apply on the grounds of Exceptional Hardship.

In this category, a physician must demonstrate that leaving the United States would cause extreme hardship. For example, hardship to a spouse or child who is a U.S. citizen or lawful permanent resident. Note that mere separation from family does not meet the threshold for exceptional hardship.

A physician of any specialty may file for a J-1 waiver recommendation on the grounds of persecution or exceptional hardship. However, you cannot file for both simultaneously. Even if you believe your case meets the requirements for both persecution and extreme hardship. You can only apply for a recommendation under one of these bases.

Once you submit Form I-612, Application for Waiver of the Foreign Residence Requirement, the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will assess your case.

Only if USCIS makes a finding of either persecution or exceptional hardship, the Waiver Review Division will proceed with the waiver recommendation. An immigration attorney can help you determine if you may qualify for a waiver on these grounds.

Similar: Q&A with a J-1 Waiver Physician

O-1 Visa

For physicians who have signed a contract with a J-1 waiver eligible employer, but experienced a delay in waiver processing. Or missed the application cycles for a J-1 waiver, it may be possible to obtain an O-1 visa.

To apply for a O-1 visa while waiting for your waiver application to process, you need to meet the following eligibility requirements:

  • Evidence of exceptional job performance in your health care field, such as awards, a high-level salary, and significant scholarly contributions.
  • Evidence of your employment and your employer’s satisfaction with your job performance.
  • Holding memberships in your field that require exemplary achievements to obtain.

O-1 visas function as a stop-gap to allow foreign physicians to remain and work lawfully in the U.S. after their J-1 training visa expires and while their waiver processes.

An O-1 visa should be viewed only as a last resort. These visas are typically reserved for high-achieving doctors who can provide peer testaments to their outstanding contributions in the field of medicine. It requires considerable documentation and time to file an O-1 petition.

However, if a physician is approved for an O-1 visa, it can allow them to begin working while they wait to apply for a J-1 waiver through Conrad 30 or HHS. Then, they can apply for an H1-B employment visa.

Regional Programs

There are a couple of regional programs that can help physicians enter a J-1 visa waiver program, if they meet certain requirements.

The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC)

The ARC J-1 visa waiver program is available to foreign physicians residing and working in 13 states, from New York to Mississippi and states in between.

The idea is to keep qualified physicians in medically underserved regions in Appalachia, namely designated Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSA). Qualified physicians must work full-time forty hours per week in the federally designated area for at least three years.

The Delta Doctors Program

Developed by the Delta Regional Authority (DRA), this program can help. Specifically with J-1 waiver requests by physicians in the J-1 exchange visitor program who work within parishes and counties in eight Delta states.

Similar to ARC, the DRA designed the Delta Doctors Program to retain qualified physicians to work in medically underserved areas (MUA).

Intervention by Government Agencies

Another crucial way international medical graduates can obtain a J-1 waiver is if a government agency makes a request on your behalf. A great example is the U.S. Department of State.

This can happen if your work is pivotal to the successful completion of medical research they fund. The U.S. government may request to keep you stateside. Especially if they strongly believe the results of your work will benefit the healthcare system.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is responsible for the clinical work of participants in the J-1 waiver program. Be sure to visit the website. It includes their contact information, requirements, and disclaimers you and your employer need to successfully apply for the J-1 waiver.

On the other end of the spectrum, your home government can also act on behalf. If you apply for a J-1 visa waiver application and your home country issues a No Objection Statement, you may be granted a waiver.

Related: Physician’s Guide to J-1 Visa Renewal


If you’re a J-1 physician looking to obtain a waiver for the home residency requirement, you may have a tough road ahead of you.

But as you can see, there are several ways to get possibly get your visa waiver, all with varying levels of accessibility. You will need to collect a lot of information from different sources. Then submit your waiver application to the U.S. Bureau of Consular Affairs.

Working with your employer will be essential. And it is definitely helpful to work in underserved areas and in programs sponsored by the U.S. government.

If you have questions about the J-1 waiver application process, contact our advisors today to see how we can help you. It’s a complicated process, but one we at Physicians Thrive are well versed in. We can help assess your personal situation and set you up for your best chances at achieving your J-1 visa waiver. As well as remaining stateside to continue pursuing your goals as a physician.

To learn more about the J-1 waiver requirements and application process, schedule a talk with physician-specific advisors today.

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